Difference between rain water, tap water and distilled water?
Any different chemicals?
Perhaps it helps to say the tap water and rain water in Australia?
water maker answers:
The first two will prove an admixture of many different chemicals.
As rain water formulates in the cloud masses in the atmosphere way up above, it takes on the chemicals present in the air — in fact, if you were to place a cup outdoors and collect the first fall of drops, you would at first see in the cup particulates, because the very first rain pour carries what is in the air and encases the grime inside the raindrop itself. And these can be large particulates, easily visible to sight. As rainfall ensues, however, it becomes clear of exigencies and is then quite safe to drink.
Tap water, on the other hand, is an admixture of several chemicals, many of which are put therein because the potable process itself does not take out everything and in fact puts some chemicals in — such as chlorine — which process is fairly standard throughout the developed world. Australia’s water quality would be commensurate with that of North America and western Europe.
Distilled water is as close to pure water as can possibly be, though there may evidence still some salts at a very low number of parts per billion, but for purposes of scientific laboratory and medical works, it is relatively pure. Practically nothing but the essential molecule of di-hydrogen oxide will evidence. But one would not be safe to say that distilled water is in fact absolutely pure, however. Pure water (and supposedly distilled water) will be absent of any salts, which is the true test of pure water: to wit, if a sample of water conveys an electrical current, then you can rest assured that that water is not pure — drinkable, quite, — but not neutral. True pure water is not electrically conductive because water in itself is neutral both chemically and electrically.
What becomes of human waste when it arrives at a water purification plant & turned into clean water to drink?
We know it is skimmed off the top as it rises to the top and filtered. But, what do they do with the stinky stuff that’s left behind? Same goes for urine! Whe knows, somewhere along the way you might be drinking the water you got rid of at the “adult watering hole” (the toilet bowl). Ugly thought isn’t it?
water maker answers:
Ultimately the solids that are collected from the waste water treatment plants go into landfill facilities. I worked at a treatment plant for 6 months, so I know. All you people who think you’re reducing your contribution to landfill (garbage dumps) by sending food left-overs, eggshells, orange peels and the like down the garbage disposal, think again. The treatment plant collects and sends it right over there for you!
All solids are treated….human waste included. Primary sedimentation tanks are used first. Some items sink, like eggshells, and are collected off the bottom of the tank, other items float and are skimmed off. Then the water continues to Secondary treatment. Biological agents are introduced. Microscopic organisms feed on the waste, get fat and heavy and sink. Again more scraping up off the bottom, more skimming. Some facilities use a DAFT or Dissolved Air Floatation Tank, again more collection of floatables.
Each step the water gets cleaner. Also water samples are taken from each phase, dehydrated and weighed to measure residual dissolved solids to insure effective processes. Eventually the final chemical treatment, chlorination and other chemicals to kill any leftover bacteria or viruses, then off the water goes back into the rivers or bays nearby. The EFFLUENT (final water product leaving the treatment plant) is completly sanitized and is drinkable.
Whew . . A mouthful I know, but that’s the bulk of it!
My nanday conure seems to have a bit of winter dry skin.Any safe oils I could add to a daily misting?
I have done a misting with aloe and water lately, but are there any safe oils I could use?
water maker answers:
It will take a while for aloe & water to work. You could try Sunshine Factor (dende oil) or flaxseed oil. Just a few drops on food or by mouth. They are essential omega oils Both are available on line. For a very dry spot you could put a little pure aloe vera gel on it. There really isn’t any oil you could mist on him without it being dangerous & messy. At least my CAV never recommended anything. She did suggest the dende oil or flaxseed oil as an additive The frequent misting will be enough in time. A humidifier might help. Also safe plants might add a bit of moistureto the air. Ferns and spider plants are good.
PS you should be using drinkable aloe to spray your bird One part drinkable aloe to 3 or 4 parts warm water. It’s available in health stores and sometimes Walmart in the drug dept. Ask the pharmacist.
Does water have an expiry date?
How long does clean water last? What happens to it if left out?
water maker answers:
It is weird – water can go stale. Take a glass of water – room temp – drink some, then leave it out overnight and try it the next day. It has a stale taste to it.
If you have a tightly sealed container stored in a cool place. It can last forever. Water not sealed tightly (air tight) can get containments in it and you wouldn’t want to trust the water. You may get sick – It is all how you store it. If you don’t know something about it don’t trust it. You can always boil water and have it evaporate into another container or add a small amount of bleach in it to clean it. Then it can br drinkable. Keep in mind adding bleach kills bacteria but will make it taste funny. There are kits out there that test water for people, they are in survival kits. They are the best way to go if unsure about water. However, if you live where there is water, throw away the stuff if you don;t know and just use the water that you can trust.
How do submarines float/ sink on command and hold a certain depth.?
If it weighs hundreds of thousands of pounds, how does it manage to float? or sink? or keep a certain depth in water? How big and how much do they weigh?…Any diagram or explanation will help. thanks.
water maker answers:
All surface ships, as well as surfaced submarines, are in a positively buoyant condition, weighing less than the volume of water they would displace if fully submerged. To submerge hydrostatically, a ship must have negative buoyancy, either by increasing its own weight or decreasing its displacement of water. To control their weight, submarines have ballast tanks, which can be filled with outside water or pressurized air.
For general submersion or surfacing, submarines use the forward and aft tanks, called Main Ballast Tanks or MBTs, which are filled with water to submerge, or filled with air to surface. Under submerged conditions, MBTs generally remain flooded, which simplifies their design, and on many submarines these tanks are a section of interhull space. For more precise and quick control of depth, submarines use smaller Depth Control Tanks or DCTs, also called hard tanks due to their ability to withstand higher pressure. The amount of water in depth control tanks can be controlled either to reflect changes in outside conditions or change depth. Depth control tanks can be located either near the submarine’s center of gravity, or separated along the submarine body to prevent affecting trim.
Living conditions on a submarine are unique because the crew works, eats, and sleeps in a confined space that is beneath the sea. Through the 1920s, submarine crews were packed into tight spaces with equipment, machinery, weapons, and provisions. Berthing spaces (sleeping areas), heads (bathrooms), and community areas were intertwined within the subs’ limited space, making life aboard exceedingly unpleasant and unhealthy. Food and body odors, combined with gasoline vapors and carbon dioxide, contaminated the limited amount of breathable air in the submarine.
Since World War II, the Navy significantly improved the environment onboard their submarines. Improvements in the air quality of subs was perhaps the most important change. The Navy learned from the mining industry how to filter out deadly carbon dioxide while the boat was submerged. Carbon Dioxide accumulated at a rate of one cubic foot per crew member per hour. With better ventilation systems, the air quality greatly improved.
Maintaining a constant source of drinkable water also was a problem. Modern submarines now carry distillation plants to make fresh water from salty seawater. Living conditions continued to improve when the Navy separated the eating, sleeping, and sanitary accommodations, and added lockers and storage facilities to cope with the lack of space on the submarine. Today, the habitability of a submarine is assured by equipment that makes fresh air and water, filtration systems that eliminate toxic vapors, and new designs that improve space management.
The size of typhoon class submarines,-whic are used mainly in navy
Length 175 m (574.15 ft)
Beam 23 m (74.5 ft)
Draft 12 m (39.37 ft)
Displacement Surfaced: 23,200-24,500 tons
Submerged: 33,800-48,000 tons
Propulsion 2 pressurized-water nuclear reactors
Complement 163 men
Armament: 4 630 mm torpedo tubes
2 533 mm torpedo tubes
20 RSM-52 ballistic missiles
Speed Surfaced: 12 knots
Submerged: 27 knots (about 50 km/h)
Maximum Depth 400 m
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